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                以下是幾種水果和蔬菜在人們選擇育種前後的樣子

                所屬教程:英語漫讀

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                zhaoshasha

                2019年12月24日

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                掃描二維碼方便學習和分享
                Here’s How Some Fruits And Vegetables Would Look If People Hadn’t Domesticated Them

                以下是幾種水果和蔬菜在人們選擇育種前後的樣子

                Lately, there’s been quite a big movement against genetically modified foods (GMOs). And while the process of genetically modifying certain food is rather recent, humans have been playing around with the genetics for centuries. The difference is that they did it by means that required much more time and patience. As far as human agriculture goes, everyone’s been trying to grow the bigger, better and more nutricious source of food and that’s how selective breeding allowed us to enjoy the fruits (literally) of a hundreds of years of labor.

                最近,有一場反對轉基因食品的大運動。雖然對某些食物進行基因改造的←過程是最近才開始的,但人類對基因的研究已經有幾個世紀的歷史了。不同的是,他們做這件事需要更多→的時間和耐心。就人類農業而言,每個人都在努力找到更大、更好、更營養的食↓物來源,這就是選擇性育種讓我們享受數百年勞動果實▲的原因。

                Some fruits and vegetables featured here show a variety of plants that could be considered a great-great-great-great-grandpa of the modern day equivalent. While others, like the banana we know today, are relatively new to our cuisine.

                這裏的一些水果和蔬菜展示了各種各樣的植物,這些植物可『以被認為是現代意義上的曾祖父。而其他的,比如我們今天認識的香蕉,對我們的菜系來說是比較新的。

                Wild watermelons

                野生西瓜

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                Image credits: christies

                A crop of a 17th-century painting by Giovanni Stanchi shows watermelons in a completely different form than we’re familiar with. The artwork which was painted between 1645 and 1672, depicts watermelons haing swirly shapes embedded in six triangular pie-shaped pieces, as well as large seeds and the inside that is dominated by the white flesh that most of us consider inedible nowadays.

                喬瓦尼·斯坦奇在17世紀的一幅油畫中展示的西瓜形狀與我們所熟悉的完全不同。這幅創作於1645年至1672年間的作品描繪了西瓜的形狀,西瓜呈漩渦狀嵌在6個三角形的餅狀瓜塊中,瓜子很大,裏面的果肉是白色的,我們大多數人現在都認為是不能吃的。

                Modern watermelons

                現代的ㄨ西瓜

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                Image credits: Scott Ehardt

                Over time, humans bred watermelons to be much more appealing and mouth-watering. Nowadays, we can easily get watermelons that are perfectly ripe, bright red and juicy and there are even varieties that are seedless. Those are produced by crossing diploid and tetraploid lines of watermelon, with the resulting seeds producing sterile triploid plants.

                隨著時間的推移,人類培育出了更有吸引∮力、更令人垂涎的西瓜。如今,我們很容易就能買到熟透的西瓜,鮮紅多汁,甚至還有無籽西瓜。它們是由西瓜的二倍體和四倍體雜交產生的,由此產生的種子產生不育的三倍體植株。

                Wild banana

                野生香蕉

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                Image credits: geneticliteracyproject

                Banana’s ancestors date back as far as 10,000 to 6,500 BP as researches found numerous phytoliths of bananas at the Kuk Swamp archaeological site. But before banana was what it is today, a creamy, sweet fruit (well, technically a berry), it went through a lot of changes through selective breeding. One of the biggest differences in the wild variety of the fruit is large seeds that take up most of the fruit. Quite difficult to imagine eating that, right?

                研究人⊙員在庫克沼澤考古遺址發現了大量的香蕉植物巖,香蕉的祖先可以追溯到10000到6500個BP。但在香蕉成為今天的樣子之前,它是一種柔滑、香甜的水果(確切地說,是一種漿果),它通過選擇性育種經歷了很多變化。在野生品種的果實最大的區別之一是大的種子,占據了大部分的果實。很難想象吃那個,對吧?

                Modern banana

                現代的香蕉

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                Image credits: Christian Dembowski

                The fruit that we now call banana has one of the most tumultuous histories ever. The mass production of bananas started only in 1834 when the fruit was moved to the Caribbean. However, at the beginning of the previous century the massively produced bananas were struck by a crisis, a fungus infection that started wiping out entire plantations. That’s when researchers developed a banana that was able to withstand the fungus infection, the Giant Cavendish, which is what we currently know as bananas.

                我們現在稱之為香蕉的水果有著最混亂的歷史。香蕉的大規模生產始於1834年,當時香蕉被運到了加勒比海。然而,在上個世紀初,大量生產的香蕉遭遇了一場危機,真菌感染開始摧毀整個種植園。就在那時,研究人員研制出了一種能夠抵禦真菌感染▲的香蕉——巨型卡文迪什香蕉,也就是我們現在所知的香蕉。

                Wild eggplant

                野生茄子

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                Image credits: Nepenthes

                Throughout history, eggplants had a variety of shapes and sizes before appearing on our dinner tables as round, fleshy vegetables. Some of the earliest versions of eggplant were recorded in ancient China. The first generations of plants used to have spines on the place where the plant’s stem connects to the flowers, which quite an extreme look, when you think of it. As bad-ass as the wild eggplant might look it also lacks the size and other preferable qualities of the modern day equivalent.

                縱觀歷史,茄子有各種各樣的形狀和大小,然後才出現在我們的餐桌上,成↑為圓形的肉質蔬菜。一些最早的茄子版本記錄在古代中國。第一代植物的莖與花相連的地方有刺,當你想到這一點時,你會覺得這是一種很極端的樣子。雖然野生茄子看起來很醜,但它也沒有現代茄子的大小和其他優點。

                Modern eggplant

                現代的茄子

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                Image credits: lchunt

                The modern day eggplant is big, long and meaty (haha!). With the limited number of seeds and plenty of flesh, the eggplant shows just how wonderful selective breeding can be!

                現代茄子又大又長又肉(哈哈!)由於種子數量有限,果肉豐富,茄子的選擇育種是多麽美妙!


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